[14], The West German government in October 1956 estimated 635,000 civilian deaths during the air war in Germany and the annexed territories, 500,000 killed by strategic bombing and 135,000 from air raids in the 1945 flight and evacuations on the eastern front. Recent research on German expulsion losses: Estimated total German population losses (in 1937 German borders) directly related to the war range between 5.5[152] to 6.9 million persons. [124] However, estimates from other sources tend to be lower, ranging from 305,000 to 500,000 persons killed by Allied bombing of German cities. By 1950 almost all POW had been released except for 29,000 men held in forced labor in the USSR or convicted as war criminals. They did not provide details of the figure [65]. [17] This statistic does not include 200,000 German people with disabilities who were murdered in the Action T4 and Action 14f13 euthanasia programs.[18][19]. Of the 2 million presumed dead, Overmans believes 700,000 died in Soviet custody without being reported as POWs. The current view of the German government is that these losses were due to an aggressive war started by the German nation. [154] A study by the German demographer Peter Marschalck put the total deaths directly related to the war both military and civilians at 5.2 million, plus an estimated decline in births of 1.7 million, bringing total population losses related to the war at 6.9 million persons within the borders of 1937. Percy Ernst Schramm was responsible for maintaining the official OKW diary during the war. [24], A. Note: This category is intended solely for those members of the German armed forces killed by enemy action and not those executed or "committed suicide" during internal purges, in accidents or those who died in Allied custody post-war. He estimated total air raid deaths at 353,000. A. OKW figures from 9/1/1939 to 12/31/1944, Source: Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78, B. (2) Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1960, Page 78. They were given considerable freedom and mixed with local people. Wirtschaft und Statistik October 1956, journal published by Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. The German historian Martin Broszat (former head of Institute of Contemporary History in Munich) described Nawratil's writings as “polemics with a nationalist-rightist point of view” and that Nawratil “exaggerates in an absurd manner the scale of ‘expulsion crimes’”. [81], 10-Germans Remaining Abroad-Includes expelled Germans who had emigrated to other countries or were in Denmark. The German historian Martin Broszat (former head of Institute of Contemporary History in Munich) described Nawratil's writings as "polemics with a nationalist-rightist point of view", and that Nawratil "exaggerates in an absurd manner the scale of 'expulsion crimes'". Deaths of POW were 450,600 including 356,700 in NKVD camps and 93,900 in transit. Russian military historian G. I. Krivosheev estimated these losses at 215,000 killed. Page 262, The figure of 1,277,000 killed and missing from January 1 1945 - April 30 1945 was estimated by the U.S. Army in the 1947 report German Manpower[25], B. Ursprünge, Arten und Folgen des Konstrukts „Bevölkerung“ vor, im und nach dem „Dritten Reich“ Zur Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerungswissensch: Herausforderung Bevölkerung : zu Entwicklungen des modernen Denkens über die Bevölkerung vor, im und nach dem Dritten Reich, Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, outlines the stance of the respective governmental institutions in, Hubert, Michael, Deutschland im Wandel. The German historian Rüdiger Overmans used the files of WASt) to conduct his research project on German military casualties. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. [81] Most sources outside of Germany put the Holocaust death toll in Germany at about 150,000 Jews. Müller-Hillebrand maintained that the OKW figures did not present an accurate accounting of German casualties because they understated losses in the final months of the war on the eastern front and post war deaths of POW in Soviet captivity. [31] This proportion (2/3 East vs. 1/3 West) contradicts the Heeresarzt weekly casualty reports for the army regarding the period from 1.1.-20.4.1945,[32] according to which ca.