19 0 obj 0000000830 00000 n /MediaBox [-0.0000 -0.0000 612.0000 792.0000] How can we know what ethical constraints apply to the methods used in scientific research? brought about major changes in the way we thought about the world, particularly in the West. 2. The scientific method is a key feature of what makes the natural sciences so scientific. << 0000024973 00000 n In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual. Should scientific research be subject to ethical constraints, or is the pursuit of all scientific knowledge intrinsically worthwhile? Edinborough, UK: Pearson Educational, 2008.

%%EOF In that respect, science can become a kind of religion, the basic explanation of our human condition and an answer to our moral questions. /H [ 830 382 ] ���^��}n�4#��F"o�Fr6�WENu�-�L�ÊD��(����Cþb�����4Wa�-t���Xh���:Zjʫ�s&��b���b$D2��e��m��r ̅�!�� /P 0 The drive to come up with ground breaking scientific discoveries has led some researchers to tamper with data and evidence. A new theory of knowledge primarily based on empirical evidence and reason was created. (, Scientists observe mysterious cosmic web directly for the first time, 100 years on: the picture that changed our understanding of the universe. xref What kinds of explanations do natural scientists offer? 22 0 obj Can we trust our human ways of knowing?

What knowledge, if any, will always remain beyond the capabilities of science to investigate or verify? 0000021633 00000 n As seen previously, scientists sometimes need to take a leap of faith and propose ideas that cannot be verified yet.

We are bound to our human frame in our understanding of the world. video montage of answers to Question from EDGE: WHat scientific data is ready for retirement? endobj 37-39 2. Nevertheless, all disciplines within the natural sciences will broadly have a shared underlying scope, methodology and purpose. What kinds of experiments should we (not) conduct and why? This section provides some respources to stimulate discussion and give ideas for your TOK Essay.

Extensions such as telescopes and magnifying glasses are arguably mere extensions.

/Filter [/FlateDecode ] Form groups of 4-5 members. ToK Group Activity . ​Is science, or should it be, value-free? >> Pp. �,~Z�!͓ Mjq-5p(5���gg�����Ùg���{7��;��E~��>:;���utt[x��7z��+n��^��"��=�����Q�P�r"��Hj(Z�(J � '�;��dѺ�?�b_PtM�Im�v��M�nO���L h����tj��Y��W4 �xxvO���H�݇ђ�:�5��k�{, VQ���i)��u~q�=���?���=�g^���c����W�Y����nUȓ�a'%>uѴ���a�Ǣ�0���������1Q��(���.��Z��cu�涊��ՙ��)�:�bV� ����c� Oh+��D�{!�$�i�+w.Z/1�C�|9L��ךR2cD%�[L�[�;�(��i�&�h�<2�O^5��`!� �_bdA�9���Z�y�T.4D�;-���u� XT�+�Q�I•�+� e�a*b>��a����|���FF�d�b�ˈ=�T���li ����� 1�>a��e�w%��V{����P�c�1�����V��+|�U&���ޙ�^("���_%N��Ћ�/��1���Dg�� �Lj �wiJ������/�)���Ʃм�� ���]��R!���x�JC��v$Ur���e�ٿ@a.y(Ma�"r|� �c�ޣC>q���t� ���.�N$aJ�2��p ����zE�J�٧�W��W�/L^��zՈ�Ffy{���J�U�ʰ��x@�0IN�ܙ�:w=��1��$�j�^�z7��`9�Je[t�E�AdO`2̏0�|�l/\krlo��t0�^^�h| S�"M�r}�Qv�Ћ:b���[��� q�0\*Ȩ1b\!lM�ؖ��CaEũx����o�R;qDzc�A\p�epSp{bs�bD>����-D�T�E"�Z�&�v���Z�6��WH��xE9����f�o�;�_��fd\��T��l�� �s�,vU���z&��nx{�������&�Fn�C;xSi��"���OhY1R�p�>v�-��s#�;[G�J�9N�U"��>g�sd�R�mnH�r#B����h?���%������P���C��S{�1� 6qа��\����@�Y:*L�-Ɏ��%�^�A�żw�� /CropBox [-0.0000 -0.0000 612.0000 792.0000] Some feel that because of science's successes, virtually everything can and should be explained through the natural sciences. ?=�����d�+Ш;�kv��p�Cc8�{7��98@���1S��e� �&l>�s���W�rL�|�?\xg�Ѕ���; In what ways have developments in science challenged long-held ethical values. /T 67404 What is the role of inductive and deductive reasoning in scientific inquiry, prediction and explanation? stream It is presumed that there exists a great unity in nature, in respect of the adequacy of a single cause to account for many different kinds of consequences. << >>
TED: What are the most important moral problems of our time? 19 20 What can we do to enhance the power of these human tools? � q How might cognitive biases such as confirmation bias impact the design and interpretation of experiments in the natural sciences? In this sense, each discipline within the natural sciences will tweak its methodology somewhat to fit its particular purpose and scope. Scientific language is more neutral or distant than the language we use in every day conversation. Some students may feel that mathematics and Theory of Knowledge do not have much in common.

Is the depiction of “the scientific method” traditionally found in science textbooks an accurate model of scientific activity? /Metadata 18 0 R 0000004671 00000 n endobj trailer I would truly hope that the love I feel for my children and my husband is not merely a matter of chemicals or "a love potion", as we might call it. Does scientific language have a primarily descriptive, explanatory or interpretative function? TWO SOURCES. << Group Members: _____ Human Sciences/History Areas of Knowledge . Video: The man who corrected Einstein. How far can and should we go in our search for scientific knowledge? Reducing depression to mere biological factors may not be very good at explaining the full extent of this human behaviour. /Prev 67392 The natural sciences aim to acquire knowledge about the natural world. In addition, sometimes observing is not as passive as what may appears to be the case. 0000000017 00000 n /L 67908 Yes - if we limit ourselves to only the physical, natural world There IS a more absolute area of knowledge in which justification is absolutely independent of observation. How might members of the public judge whether to accept scientific findings if they do not have detailed scientific knowledge? When your doctor explains the disease in scientific terminology (neoplasms, carcinoma, lymphoma, etc), the knowledge he passes on is correct. endstream ši:¤ìRxUŒ¼z^iRämQîLKæ¼Ò9¯Ô䥃Yi ]Ku×ȱi[¢Šg)ƒiYá'^åS�4d'�L˜ü0&�ÃÓ!Õ¯E£ğy/ÇÿN‰&s¤dLô¾ğ–�û¬�@`œ?X’HxŒ¸MW^xŞ�";p¡,¬—£ÄÏí²l©›®š9L\ì–dì™Ôc!3"TñƒÇXõT ÏàÕkøşŞÏ. 0000004425 00000 n

How might differences in world views create challenges for collaboration between environmental scientists and holders of traditional environmental knowledge? Handout: TOK Subject Guide, pp.

The possession of scientific knowledge undoubtedly entails ethical responsibility. Bias in science? 0000024722 00000 n /Size 39 But there is more at hand with fMRIs.

Years later, with the advancement of technology and progress in other areas, these ideas might be proven  wrong, or right. 7�J�!�|��>�ȕ�N>�F,Q'\-k�F�T����V��Es;���k���#�-r d�$�I$�;�X$�I�����:n[L���{I��] ;i�I�!=J�Ur�ԡ����p.�Vy�%���Q�n��u"��b��ub���+�����c���i�⌴F�O��m�-8v22�d�dQYK&�� ���_o�aZ�ӨF~�%IN��������7�=�*�a���:��@��RΕ:_��2�̦��3���s�h��Z��ewZ�)5�X9�u�eg�\ �?�k� �\���, How is it that scientific knowledge is often shared by large, geographically spread and culturally diverse groups? Instructions for the presentation assignment My class presentation process and instructions 1. Sometimes we have to observe the effects of something rather than the thing we want to observe, sometimes the tools we use to observe (such as is the case of fMRIs) are quite far removed from a simple act of observing. 0000001212 00000 n 0000006199 00000 n To verify scientific knowledge, we should ideally be able to repeat experiments. To answer this question, we first need to look at what constitutes good science, how the natural sciences work and what they can produce knowledge about. 190-210 I. /TrimBox [0.0000 0.0000 612.0000 792.0000] When it comes to distinguishing good science and bad science, it is important to check the funding of research as well as the possible profitable nature of its findings. umanity’s genius, as often happens, was a big step ahead of humanity’s machines." Within this method, evidence and justification play a very important role. Others question the impact of natural sciences exactly from the perspective of other areas of knowledge such as ethics. >> He continues to cite, “It is remarkable that humans can put together a story, and test it, for such strange and extreme events that took place billions of years ago and billions of light-years distant from us.”, ome evidence is produced by processes so convoluted that it’s hard to decide what, if anything has been observed."
>> stream 0000031421 00000 n Beginning and experienced TOK teachers are invited to appropriate, borrow directly, or adapt freely any of this tried and trusted Theory of Knowledge content. Referring to the ToK Guide, pick one question from any two of the four sections of the Human Sciences and History areas of knowledge. To what extent can empathy, intuitive, and feeling be legitimate ways of knowing in the human sciences?

With the rapid advancement of knowledge produced by the sciences over the last centuries, people started to explore the boundaries of the latter's scope. 0 0000036209 00000 n Western civilisation went through a major cognitive paradigm shift around the 17th Century. When we define love in scientific terms, we may ignore nuances which artists can grasp, for example. brought about major changes in the way we thought about the world, particularly in the West. /Type /Catalog /O 21

/Names << /Dests 10 0 R>> To produce knowledge about the natural world, scientists currently use a particular method: the scientific method.This method is based on observation and hypothesis, which is tested (through experimentation). Biology and TOK Biology is one of the natural sciences, an area of knowledge. The more recent case of Andrew Wakefield and the MMR vaccine highlights the importance of peer review and the questioning of expert opinion in the field of the natural sciences. /Root 20 0 R /Pages 16 0 R TED: You need to engage the ethical question all along, Fei Fei Li and Harari on humanizing artificial intelligence.

> Į � T � � Scientists try to "map" the natural world. Some scientists have even become guilty of scams and hoaxes such as the. ncorrect scientific knowledge can surface for a while within the scientific community, but over time, these ideas are (hopefully) phased out through peer review.

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How might developments in scientific knowledge trigger political controversies or controversies in other areas of knowledge? 1.

(Under Construction) Human Sciences Web Resources Download Human Sciences Materials from my One Drive Folder Topics Replication Crisis Podcast: Presentation stuff from the TOK guide Presentation Basics … How do scientists try to protect against error in scientific research? On what basis can we decide it is OK to "redesign nature"? 21 0 obj Why might some people regard science as the supreme form of all knowledge? The… /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] Mankind arguably benefited in many ways from this cognitive paradigm shift and with an increased understanding of the world around us, living standards and arguably education generally improved. ​What does it mean for a discipline to be a science? Is human knowledge confined to what the natural sciences discover, or are there other important inquiries that are not covered by the natural sciences? /Parent 16 0 R << Theory of Knowledge Mr. Blackmon Chapter 11 Human Sciences Lesson Plans Bastian, Sue et al. On what basis can we decide that something is called progress?

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