N°501‐2015‐INSN‐DG‐OEA) from the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Lima, Perú; the Sustainability Strategy, the Research Group of Social and Economic Determinants of Health and Nutrition, the Demography and Health Research Group, and Interuniversity Services Corporation (CIS) from the University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia; the Secretary of University Extension and Student Welfare, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina; and the European Regional Development Fund (MICINN‐FEDER) though a grant to the GENUD Research Group. Source of secondary data was mostly national-level household surveys such as Demographic and Health Surveys in Bangladesh (n = 15, 13%) and Nepal (n = 7, 6%) and National Family and Health Survey in India (n = 47 or 41%). Google Scholar. LAM was given a visiting professor scholarship from the São Paulo Research Foundation, FAPESP (proc. ... so I can conduct EFA and finalise before I conduct my full survey. Majority of Bangladesh studies also used asset-based wealth index (n = 30, 68%) followed by indices based on income and expenditure (n = 13, 30%). h�b```�y,@ҀA��b�@�q�Q*����`a10 All authors acknowledge each school dean/chair and the children, adolescents, and their respective parents for their voluntary participation in the SAYCARE study. Further in depth review can be considered to explore whether the researchers could satisfactorily fulfill their purpose of measuring socioeconomic status by the indices which they used.
Universal health coverage (UHC) is a key area in post-2015 global agenda which has been incorporated as target for achieving health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Bhuiya A, Mahmood SS, Rana AK, Wahed T, Ahmed SM, Chowdhury AM. A systematic review. This study sets out to assess whether a population health survey gives biased estimates of socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health. %%EOF However, few have been tested in South American countries. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of CVD in men and women (1). J Epidemiol Community Health. Vyas S, Kumaranayake L. Constructing socio-economic status indices: how to use principal components analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the reliability of questionnaires aimed at measuring SES and environmental factors in children and adolescents from different countries of South America. Further explorations are needed whether these common indices are capable of capturing the urban inequality properly as many urban inhabitants are transitory particularly in growing urban slums. Indian J Med Res. A global framework has been developed to monitor SDG indicators disaggregated by socioeconomic and demographic markers.
Learning Objectives. SI, IA, KMSUR, SH, and MH conceptualized the review in consultation with the co-reviewers. How to Measure Socioeconomic status(SES)? 2013;28(1):65–74. Occupation can be assessed by asking participants to note their current or most recent occupation or job title, or to indicate their occupational category from a list.
Other study designs also mostly used asset-based wealth index. h�b```�B�s cb�&AEA&EAAAFFE��8[�5���m��Ø� Notwithstanding these limitations, our study results suggest that the reliability of environmental and SES markers are moderate and may not be the same across age groups. This provides researchers and policy makers with a consistent, standardized measurement and collection approach to SES across groups. Measuring Socioeconomic Status 1.
Aside from financial benefits, employment can improve one's physical and mental health and expand social networks (APA, 2007). Learn more. 4�j˅Y�V�2�h+�[k]�v ]� h�k[GC�`� . © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Total index scores ranging from 0 to 14 was considered as a low SLI, a score between 15 and 24 as a medium SLI, and a score between 25 and 67 as a high SLI .
1 Go8 Position Paper Response to the DEEWR discussion paper: Measuring the Socioeconomic Status of Higher Education Students, December 2009 1. Pakistani studies used asset-based wealth index (n = 11, 39%) and income and expenditure (n = 10, 36%) as their main SES indicator. The environmental questionnaire showed good reproducibility in both age groups (k = 0.132‐0.612 in children and k = 0.392‐0.746 in adolescents). Washington, DC: The World Bank. How can I measure socio economic status in a survey? How can do that? Though each of the indices has its own acceptability and limitations , it has been observed that some authors tried to use contextualized indices based on the population. Macro IIfPSIaO.
icddr,b is also grateful to the Governments of Bangladesh, Canada, Sweden, and the UK for providing core/unrestricted support. We applied the Altman guideline for the interpretation of kappa coefficients: 0 to 0.20, slight; 0.21 to 0.40, fair; 0.41 to 0.60, moderate; 0.61 to 0.80, substantial; and 0.81 to 1.00, almost perfect (22). endstream endobj startxref Sri Lankan studies used income- and expenditure-based indices more than asset-based wealth index. Because of other SAYCARE objectives (e.g., validate the sedentary behavior questionnaire), a wider sample than initially calculated was assessed. Bank W. “Country Groups,” Data and Statistics. 1968;51:365–6.
This scoping review is an attempt to explore the types and patterns of SES indices used in epidemiological studies conducted among South Asian urban population.
All South Asian health studies covering urban population, with any research-designs, written in English language, and published between January 2000 and June 2016 were included. A newer and more objective way of measuring SES is wealth index (WI) where construction materials of dwelling houses and household assets are combined together through data reduction using statistical procedure of principal component and factor analysis (PCA & FA) methods to come up with a summary WI (usually in quintiles). SES is estimated in Kuppuswami classification considering indicators like material possessions, highest education, highest occupation, and type of house [7, 29]. 313772/2014‐2) and São Paulo Research Foundation‐FAPESP (proc. Fewer number of studies using SES indices were available during the first 5 years of the study period (n = 29, 11%), number of studies using SES indices increased gradually over time, and the majority of studies included in the review were published after 2010 (n = 175, 68%). J Indian Med Assoc. For children aged 3 to 10 years (preschool and primary school), it was recommended that parents or guardians fill out the questionnaires (16). Matern Child Nutr. But, as Peter Langschmidt explains, this no longer accurately reflects the South African consumer landscape and now a new SEM segmentation tool is on the way. The parental education level was strongly associated with the domestic appliances component in both age groups. CAS 2014;4(12):e006391. If you are examining how a new policy affected the number of individuals living in poverty, you may look into how many people are living below federal poverty thresholds before and after it takes effect. Given that family size and household composition are required to calculate poverty, and survey measures should collect information on family size and household composition in compliance with official federal poverty guidelines as issued and published each year. 2010;14(3):303–10. For example, Kuppuswami et al. This questionnaire was adapted for each country based on the criteria of socioeconomic classification of the Brazilian Association of Research Companies, which considers the presence of several of the following consumer goods: number of bedrooms; number of bathrooms (with a shower and toilet); number of television sets (0, 1, 2, 3+); number of vehicles (0, 1, 2+); and ownership (yes/no) of assets, including a radio, refrigerator, DVD or videotape (VCR), freezer/duplex refrigerator, telephone line, and computer. 300951/2015‐9) and HBC received Research Grant for Scientific Publication Paper from the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP; proc 2017/15554‐2). Briefly, SAYCARE is an observational, multicenter, feasibility study aimed to define obesity and CVD‐related risk factors in South American children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years who are enrolled in public and private schools of their respective participants cities of Buenos Aires (Argentina), Lima (Peru), Medellin (Colombia), Montevideo (Uruguay), Santiago (Chile), Sao Paulo, and Teresina (Brazil). Choudhary A, Moses PD, Mony P, Mathai M. Prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls in the urban slums of Vellore, south India. Sughis M, Nawrot TS, Ihsan-ul-Haque S, Amjad A, Nemery B. The systematic review center has been established with support from the European Union (EU). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-018-0867-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-018-0867-6. Trop Dr. 2006;36(3):167–9. A total of 25 different SES indices were identified. The Supporting Information Table S1 shows Pearson's correlation coefficients between the continuous score of the domestic appliance and the household income and parental education level. Washington, DC: World Bank; 2007. For both questionnaires, the descriptive analyses included the mean, standard deviation, percentages, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
Surveys should also collect information on degree attainment.
Indian studies used a large variety of indices where the researchers contextualized the indicator of SES with the highest frequency of asset-based wealth index use. Flash is not available on mobile devices.