Only light intensity seemed to affect significantly the RNA content in A. tamarense Group I and Group III, but this was still within the same range as for the other treatments meaning that a back calibration from RNA to cell numbers was possible. Marine toxins also have environmental impacts, including significant marine mammal mortalities as well as birth morbidity/mortality and fish kills. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. In the method design, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata membranes labelled with a derivative of fluorescein was used. Recommendations on the EFSA opinion include the search for data occurrence of CIs in shellfish and using confirmatory methods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which need to be developed and optimized. Concentrations of PnTX-G and SPX-1 ranged from 1.8 to 3.1 µg/kg and 1.2 to 6.9 µg/kg, respectively, and PnTX-A was detected in the group of samples with higher levels of PnTX-G after a solid phase extraction (SPE) step used for the concentration of extracts. Journal of medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Identification of gymnodimine D and presence of gymnodimine variants in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea, Occurrence of Marine Biotoxins and Shellfish Poisoning Events and Their Causative Organisms in Argentine Marine Waters, Pinnatoxins and Spirolides in Norwegian Blue Mussels and Seawater, Marine biotoxins in shellfish - Cyclic imines (spirolides, gymnodimines, pinnatoxins and pteriatoxins), EFSA Scientific Opinion, Cyclic imines, as emerging marine toxins: Chemical properties, distribution, toxicological aspects and detection methods, Potential Threats Posed by New or Emerging Marine Biotoxins in UKWaters and Examination of Detection Methodologies Used for Their Control: Cyclic Imines, Phycotoxins: chemistry, mechanisms of action and shellfish poisoning, Update of risk assessment of main marine biotoxins in the European Union, The Incidence of Marine Toxins and the Associated Seafood Poisoning Episodes in the African Countries of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish, Cytotoxicity, Fractionation and Dereplication of Extracts of the Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, a Producer of Pinnatoxin G, Recent insights about relationships between nutrient availability, forms, and stoichiometry, and the distribution, ecophysiology, and food web effects of pelagic and benthic Prorocentrum species, Recent advances in understanding of relationships between nutrient availability, forms, and stoichiometry, and the distribution, ecophysiology, and food web effects of pelagic and benthic Prorocentrum species, The globally distributed genus Alexandrium: Multifaceted roles in marine ecosystems and impacts on human health, Confirmed identification of Gymnodimine in Oysters from the west coast of South Africa by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins, Enhancement of domoic acid neurotoxicity on Diptera larvae bioassay by marine fungal metabolites, Pinnatoxins : an emergent family of marine phycotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with high affinity, Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Characterization of the Toxigenic Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Pharmacokinetic and toxicological data of spirolides after oral and intraperitoneal administration, Preliminary results of the MIDTAL project: a microarray chip to monitor toxic microalgae in the Orkney Islands, UK, Cyclic Imines (CIs) in Mussels from North-Central Adriatic Sea: First Evidence of Gymnodimine A in Italy, Analysis of Cyclic Imines in Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Galicia (NW Spain) by LC-MS/MS, Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood - European database on contaminant levels, Pinnatoxins: an emergent family of marine phycotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with high affinity, Next Generation Sequencing and mass spectrometry reveal high taxonomic diversity and complex phytoplankton-phycotoxins patterns in Southeastern Pacific fjords, DINOFLAGELADOS Y TOXINAS LIPOFÍLICAS EN BANCOS NATURALES DE BIVALVOS AL SUR DE LA BAHÍA DE LA PAZ, B.C.S., MÉXICO, EMERGING MARINE TOXINS WITH INCREASING CONCERN IN EUROPE, Toxin Variability Estimations of 68 Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) Strains from The Netherlands Reveal a Novel Abundant Gymnodimine, Salinity effects on growth and toxin production in an Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Dinophyceae) isolate from The Netherlands, Human impact in Mediterranean coastal ecosystems and climate change: emerging toxins, Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels, Toxicology and diversity of marine toxins, Validation of the detection of Alexandrium species using specific RNA probes tested in a microarray format: Calibration of signal using variability of RNA content with environmental conditions, Portimine: A bioactive metabolite from the benthic dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, Erratum to “Validation of the detection of Alexandrium species using specific RNA probes tested in a microarray format: Calibration of signal using variability of RNA content with environmental conditions” [Harmful Algae 37 (2014) 17–27], Benefit of 13-desmethyl Spirolide C Treatment in Triple Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease: Beta-Amyloid and Neuronal Markers Improvement, First direct fluorescence polarization assay for the detection and quantification of spirolides in mussel samples, Liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry for multiclass screening and identification of lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve mollusks, Solid-Phase Receptor-Based Assay for the Detection of Cyclic Imines by Chemiluminescence, Fluorescence, or Colorimetry, Total Synthesis of Pinnatoxins A and G and Revision of the Mode of Action of Pinnatoxin A, Emergent Toxins in North Atlantic Temperate Waters: A Challenge for Monitoring Programs and Legislation, Chemistry and Pharmacology of the 1,4-Benzodiazepines, Vaginal Cytohormonal Effects of Long-Term Cyclic Administration of Synthetic Progestins, Book review: Biochemical Pharmacology – chemistry as the language of pharmacology. Injected together, longibrachin-A-I and domoic acid exhibited an increase of their activities. With synthetic pinnatoxin A, a detailed study has been performed that provides conclusive evidence for its mode of action as a potent inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors selective for the human neuronal α7 subtype. The spirolides and gymnodimines are marine phycotoxins included in the group of cyclic imines. So far, little information is available on this item but necessary for spirolide regulation in the European Union (EU). This finding is the first confirmed evidence of gymnodimine in the southern Benguela upwelling system. Based on previous works that showed beneficial effects in an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied the effect in the same mice, 3xTg-AD, in vivo. Aim of the study is recently published data on occurrence, chemical structure, poisoning potential and methods for determination of emerging toxins in European coastal waters to be reviewed. A good agreement in determining presence and absence between the methods was found. Overall, the method exhibited excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and it will have broad applications in the monitoring of lipophilic marine biotoxins. Lytic activity was highest at the lowest salinity, and was 5-fold higher in the cell-free supernatants compared to cell extracts. Data showed the decrease of FP when toxin concentration was increased. Since 2012, A. ostenfeldii recurs annually in the Ouwerkerkse Kreek, a Dutch brackish water creek discharging into an estuary with large stocks of mussels, oysters and cockles. E-mail: SL sequences in decay indicate frequent retro-transposition of mRNA species. "Reproduced from" can be substituted with "Adapted from". Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA, b The goal of the EU FP7 project MIDTAL (microarrays for the detection of toxic algae) was to achieve rapid species identification using species-specific probes for rRNA genes in a microarray chip format. We also provide a method that uses another approach, the resonant mirror, in this case for yessotoxin. Sequencing of several thousand fosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) ends yielded a wealth of simple repeats and tandemly repeated longer sequence stretches which we estimated to comprise more than half of the whole genome. Dinoflagellate toxins are structurally and functionally diverse, and many present unique biological activities. Spirolides included 13-desMethyl-spirolide C generally as the major compound and several other mostly unknown SPX-like compounds that were detected and characterized. Pinnatoxins belong to an emerging class of phycotoxins of the cyclic imine group. It remains to be determined whether this unusual composition is directly correlated to the exceptionally genome organization of dinoflagellates with a low amount of histones and histone-like proteins. Only 2 minutes after its intraperitoneal injection it is found in brain and remains detectable even 24 hours post administration. Up to now, the mouse bioassay has been the method of choice, but there is a legal requirement in Europe to replace the bioassay for mass spectrometry with chromatographic separation. Dinoflagellates are particularly refractory to genomic analysis due to the enormous genome size, lack of knowledge about their DNA composition and structure, and peculiarities of gene regulation, such as spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing and mRNA transposition mechanisms. The method was used to analyze 120 shellfish samples collected from farming areas along the coast of China, and 7% of the samples were found to be contaminated with toxins. The toxicity of these compounds to humans is still unknown, although their toxicity by intraperitoneal injection in rodents is very high.